Asthma is an inflammatory lung disease that can lead to mild to severe symptoms. In most cases, you can control asthma through avoiding triggers, daily medications and other treatment options.
If you continue to have symptoms, you may needed additional medications such corticosteroids.
For those with severe asthma, the highest dose of standard medications may not alleviate frequent and life-threatening asthma attacks. Few treatment options are available to adequately control the disease which can have a significant impact on quality of life.
Smoking is the number one factor. Because of this, emphysema is one of the most preventable types of respiratory diseases.
Cigarette smoking not only destroys lung tissue, it also irritates the airways. This causes inflammation and damage to cilia that line the bronchial tubes. This results in swollen airways, mucus production, and difficulty clearing the airways. All of these changes can lead to shortness of breath.
Most people with emphysema also have chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the tubes that carry air to your lungs (bronchial tubes), which leads to a persistent cough.
BLVR, is a minimally invasive procedure that involves no incisions or stitches, to relieve lung hyperinflation. BLVR can help people with severe emphysema that doesn’t improve with other standard treatments, such as medications, pulmonary rehabilitation, and oxygen treatment.
In BLVR, our doctor will place tiny, one-way valves in the airways in the hyperinflated emphysematous sections of the lungs. The valves prevent air from entering the diseased areas but allow trapped air and secretions to escape.
Lung cancer is a type of cancer that originates from the lungs. There are two main types of lung cancer; 80-85% of the cases are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 10-15% are small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
The subtypes under NSCLC originate from larger cells and are generally less aggressive. SCLC subtypes appear small and round under a microscope and tends to spread faster than NSCLC.
There are usually no signs during early-stage lung cancer. Symptoms of lung cancer develops as the cancer progresses. If you have these symptoms, it’s important to see a doctor immediately:
Lung cancer, including early lung cancer, can be detected by a low dose CT scan with minimal radiation. This is helpful for those with risk factors for lung cancer e.g. smokers. A CT scan will pick up a growth in the lung. If this is seen, tissue biopsy can be arranged. A bronchoscopy, which is an endoscopic examination of the airways, can also be done which will identify more central tumours.
This investigation is often done in those who cough up blood.pAdditional tests may be required to stage i.e. determine how advanced the cancer is. These tests include endobronchial ultrasound and biopsy, mediastinoscopy and biopsy, anterior mediastinotomy and biopsy, and VATS biopsy.
The best outcome for lung cancer is to remove it surgically. In the early stages of lung cancer, this is all that may be needed. If the lung cancer is larger or involves the lymph nodes, additional treatment with immunotherapy or chemotherapy may also be needed in addition to surgery.
If the lung cancer is very advanced and has spread to other organs elsewhere, treatment is usually only with immunotherapy and chemotherapy with our without radiotherapy. Examples of lung resection surgery are lobectomy, pneumonectomy, segmentectomy, and wedge resections.
A pneumothorax is the medical term for a collapsed lung. This occurs when air leaks into the space between your lungs and chest wall, causing your lung to collapse.
What are the causes of pneumothorax?气胸可以是创伤性的或非创伤性的。外伤性气胸发生在胸部受伤导致漏气的情况下，原因如下：
What are the pneumothorax sign & symptoms?
Severity of symptoms may vary depending on the portion of lung that is collapsed. Some pneumothorax can be life threatening, so see a doctor if you experience:
Treatment will depend on severity, past experience and symptoms experienced. The main goal of pneumothorax treatments is to relieve pressure on the lungs allowing it to re-expand.
轻度气胸无需治疗，可通过胸部 X 光检查观察。在更严重的情况下，可以抽吸胸腔中的空气或插入胸腔引流管。
If the pneumothorax persists, or if it recurs, then key hole surgery is advised. This is performed through small incisions, a procedure called Video Assisted Thoracoscopic (VATS) surgery. The part of the lung which is leaking air is excised and inflammation is triggered between the lung and the chest wall so that the lung will stick to the chest wall and not collapse again even if air should leak again.