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肺部

哮喘

什么是哮喘?

Asthma is an inflammatory lung disease that can lead to mild to severe symptoms. In most cases, you can control asthma through avoiding triggers, daily medications and other treatment options.

If you continue to have symptoms, you may needed additional medications such corticosteroids.

For those with severe asthma, the highest dose of standard medications may not alleviate frequent and life-threatening asthma attacks. Few treatment options are available to adequately control the disease which can have a significant impact on quality of life.

严重哮喘的治疗方案

支气管热成形术
严重哮喘的非药物治疗

支气管热成形术(BT)是一种减少气道平滑肌质量的手术。由于平滑肌减少,气道收缩减少,减少严重哮喘发作。

支气管热成形术(BT)是18岁及以上严重哮喘患者的首选非药物治疗方案,这些患者的哮喘无法通过吸入皮质类固醇和长效β激动剂得到很好的控制。这种微创门诊程序补充了常规哮喘药物治疗,以更好地管理疾病。

这是一种减少气道内壁平滑肌增厚的热处理方法。随着时间的推移,严重的哮喘会导致气道平滑肌组织增厚。这意味着气道变窄,呼吸困难。

肺气肿

什么是肺气肿?

肺气肿是一种慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)。在这种情况下,肺中的气囊会受损并拉伸。这种损害是永久性和不可逆的,会导致慢性咳嗽和呼吸困难。

Smoking is the number one factor. Because of this, emphysema is one of the most preventable types of respiratory diseases.

Cigarette smoking not only destroys lung tissue, it also irritates the airways. This causes inflammation and damage to cilia that line the bronchial tubes. This results in swollen airways, mucus production, and difficulty clearing the airways. All of these changes can lead to shortness of breath.

肺气肿的治疗方案

>Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR)

Most people with emphysema also have chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the tubes that carry air to your lungs (bronchial tubes), which leads to a persistent cough.

BLVR, is a minimally invasive procedure that involves no incisions or stitches, to relieve lung hyperinflation. BLVR can help people with severe emphysema that doesn’t improve with other standard treatments, such as medications, pulmonary rehabilitation, and oxygen treatment.

In BLVR, our doctor will place tiny, one-way valves in the airways in the hyperinflated emphysematous sections of the lungs. The valves prevent air from entering the diseased areas but allow trapped air and secretions to escape.

肺癌

Lung cancer is a type of cancer that originates from the lungs. There are two main types of lung cancer; 80-85% of the cases are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 10-15% are small cell lung cancer (SCLC).

The subtypes under NSCLC originate from larger cells and are generally less aggressive. SCLC subtypes appear small and round under a microscope and tends to spread faster than NSCLC.

What are the risk factor of lung cancer?
某些风险因素会增加一个人患肺癌的机会,例如:
  • 吸烟
  • 二手烟
  • 接触氡
  • 接触石棉
  • 空气污染
  • 肺癌家族史
What are the lung cancer sign & symptoms?

There are usually no signs during early-stage lung cancer. Symptoms of lung cancer develops as the cancer progresses. If you have these symptoms, it’s important to see a doctor immediately:

  • 咳嗽不会消失或变得更糟
  • 咳血或铁锈色痰
  • 胸痛
  • 食欲不振
  • 不明原因的体重减轻
肺癌的诊断

Lung cancer, including early lung cancer, can be detected by a low dose CT scan with minimal radiation. This is helpful for those with risk factors for lung cancer e.g. smokers. A CT scan will pick up a growth in the lung. If this is seen, tissue biopsy can be arranged. A bronchoscopy, which is an endoscopic examination of the airways, can also be done which will identify more central tumours.

This investigation is often done in those who cough up blood.pAdditional tests may be required to stage i.e. determine how advanced the cancer is. These tests include endobronchial ultrasound and biopsy, mediastinoscopy and biopsy, anterior mediastinotomy and biopsy, and VATS biopsy.

肺癌的治疗方案

The best outcome for lung cancer is to remove it surgically. In the early stages of lung cancer, this is all that may be needed. If the lung cancer is larger or involves the lymph nodes, additional treatment with immunotherapy or chemotherapy may also be needed in addition to surgery.

If the lung cancer is very advanced and has spread to other organs elsewhere, treatment is usually only with immunotherapy and chemotherapy with our without radiotherapy. Examples of lung resection surgery are lobectomy, pneumonectomy, segmentectomy, and wedge resections.

肺叶切除术
您的右肺分为三部分,称为肺叶,左肺分为两部分。肺叶切除术是切除受肺癌影响的肺叶之一。

全肺切除术
该程序是切除受癌症影响的整个肺部。如果无法通过肺叶切除术完全切除癌症或病灶位于中心,通常会进行该手术。

气胸

A pneumothorax is the medical term for a collapsed lung. This occurs when air leaks into the space between your lungs and chest wall, causing your lung to collapse.

气胸可能导致部分肺萎陷或完全肺萎陷。

What are the causes of pneumothorax?

气胸可以是创伤性的或非创伤性的。外伤性气胸发生在胸部受伤导致漏气的情况下,原因如下:
  • 交通意外
  • 肋骨断裂
  • 刺伤
  • 肺活检或心肺复苏等医疗程序
非创伤性气胸可由以下原因引起:
  • 抽烟
  • 肺大疱(囊肿)
  • 肺气肿
  • 既往气胸

What are the pneumothorax sign & symptoms?

Severity of symptoms may vary depending on the portion of lung that is collapsed. Some pneumothorax can be life threatening, so see a doctor if you experience:

  • 突然胸痛
  • 呼吸短促
  • 胸部感到紧实
  • 转为蓝色
  • 心率快

气胸的治疗方案

Treatment will depend on severity, past experience and symptoms experienced. The main goal of pneumothorax treatments is to relieve pressure on the lungs allowing it to re-expand.

轻度气胸无需治疗,可通过胸部 X 光检查观察。在更严重的情况下,可以抽吸胸腔中的空气或插入胸腔引流管。

If the pneumothorax persists, or if it recurs, then key hole surgery is advised. This is performed through small incisions, a procedure called Video Assisted Thoracoscopic (VATS) surgery. The part of the lung which is leaking air is excised and inflammation is triggered between the lung and the chest wall so that the lung will stick to the chest wall and not collapse again even if air should leak again.

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