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肺部

哮喘

什么是哮喘?

哮喘是一种炎症性肺病,可导致轻度至重度症状。在大多数情况下,您可以通过避免诱发因素、日常用药和其他治疗方案来控制哮喘。

如果您继续出现症状,您可能需要额外的药物治疗,例如皮质类固醇。

For those with severe asthma, the highest dose of standard medications may not alleviate frequent and life-threatening asthma attacks. Few treatment options are available to adequately control the disease which can have a significant impact on quality of life.

严重哮喘的治疗方案

支气管热成形术
严重哮喘的非药物治疗

支气管热成形术(BT)是一种减少气道平滑肌质量的手术。由于平滑肌减少,气道收缩减少,减少严重哮喘发作。

支气管热成形术(BT)是18岁及以上严重哮喘患者的首选非药物治疗方案,这些患者的哮喘无法通过吸入皮质类固醇和长效β激动剂得到很好的控制。这种微创门诊程序补充了常规哮喘药物治疗,以更好地管理疾病。

这是一种减少气道内壁平滑肌增厚的热处理方法。随着时间的推移,严重的哮喘会导致气道平滑肌组织增厚。这意味着气道变窄,呼吸困难。

肺气肿

什么是肺气肿?

肺气肿是一种慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)。在这种情况下,肺中的气囊会受损并拉伸。这种损害是永久性和不可逆的,会导致慢性咳嗽和呼吸困难。

吸烟是首要因素。因此,肺气肿是最可预防的呼吸道疾病之一。

吸烟不仅会破坏肺组织,还会刺激呼吸道。这会导致炎症和支气管纤毛受损。这会导致气道肿胀,产生粘液,难以清理气道。所有这些变化都会导致呼吸短促。

肺气肿的治疗方案

支气管镜肺减容术(BLVR)

Most people with emphysema also have chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the tubes that carry air to your lungs (bronchial tubes), which leads to a persistent cough.

BLVR是一种微创手术,无需切口或缝合,以缓解肺恶性膨胀。BLVR可以帮助严重肺气肿患者,而这些肺气肿患者在其他标准治疗(如药物治疗、肺康复和氧气治疗)中无法得到改善。

In BLVR, our doctor will place tiny, one-way valves in the airways in the hyperinflated emphysematous sections of the lungs. The valves prevent air from entering the diseased areas but allow trapped air and secretions to escape.

肺癌

肺癌是一种起源于肺部的癌症。肺癌主要有两种类型;80-85%的病例是非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC),10-15%是小细胞肺癌。

NSCLC下的亚型起源于较大的细胞,通常侵袭性较小。在显微镜下,SCLC亚型看起来又小又圆,并且往往比NSCLC传播得更快。

What is the risk factor for lung cancer?
某些风险因素会增加一个人患肺癌的机会,例如:

  • 吸烟
  • 二手烟
  • 接触氡
  • 接触石棉
  • 空气污染
  • 肺癌家族史

What are the lung cancer sign & symptoms?

早期肺癌通常没有明显的症状。肺癌的症状会随着癌症的发展而逐渐出现。如果您出现以下症状,重要的是立即就医:

  • 咳嗽不会消失或变得更糟
  • 咳出血液或带有铁锈色痰液
  • 胸痛
  • 食欲不振
  • 不明原因的体重减轻

肺癌的诊断

Lung cancer, including early lung cancer, can be detected by a low-dose CT scan with minimal radiation. This is helpful for those with risk factors for lung cancer e.g. smokers. A CT scan will pick up growth in the lung. If this is seen, a tissue biopsy can be arranged. A bronchoscopy, which is an endoscopic examination of the airways, can also be done which will identify more central tumours.

This investigation is often done in those who cough up blood. Additional tests may be required to stage i.e. determine how advanced the cancer is. These tests include endobronchial ultrasound and biopsy, mediastinoscopy and biopsy, anterior mediastinotomy and biopsy, and VATS biopsy.

肺癌的治疗方案

The best outcome for lung cancer is to remove it surgically. In the early stages of lung cancer, this is all that may be needed. If the lung cancer is larger or involves the lymph nodes, additional treatment with immunotherapy or chemotherapy may also be needed in addition to surgery.

If lung cancer is very advanced and has spread to other organs elsewhere, treatment is usually only with immunotherapy and chemotherapy without radiotherapy. Examples of lung resection surgery are lobectomy, pneumonectomy, segmentectomy, and wedge resections.

肺叶切除术
您的右肺分为三部分,称为肺叶,左肺分为两部分。肺叶切除术是切除受肺癌影响的肺叶之一。

全肺切除术
该手术是切除受癌症影响的整个肺部。通常在癌症无法完全通过肺叶切除术进行切除或病变位于中心部位时进行该手术。

气胸

A pneumothorax is the medical term for a collapsed lung. This occurs when air leaks into the space between your lungs and chest wall, causing your lung to collapse.

气胸可能导致部分肺萎陷或完全肺萎陷。

What are the causes of pneumothorax?

气胸可以是创伤性的或非创伤性的。外伤性气胸发生在胸部受伤导致漏气的情况下,原因如下:

  • 交通意外
  • 肋骨断裂
  • 刺伤
  • 肺活检或心肺复苏等医疗程序

非创伤性气胸可由以下原因引起:

  • 抽烟
  • 肺大疱(囊肿)
  • 肺气肿
  • 既往气胸

What are the pneumothorax sign & symptoms?

症状的严重程度可能因肺部塌陷的部位而异。有些气胸可能危及生命,因此如果您遇到以下情况,请就立即医:

  • 突然胸痛
  • 呼吸短促
  • 胸部感到紧实
  • 转为蓝色
  • 心率快

气胸的治疗方案

治疗将根据病情的严重程度、过往经验和出现的症状而定。气胸治疗的主要目标是减轻对肺部的压力,使其重新扩张。

轻度气胸无需治疗,可通过胸部 X 光检查观察。在更严重的情况下,可以抽吸胸腔中的空气或插入胸腔引流管。

如果气胸持续存在或复发,则建议进行锁孔手术。这是通过小切口进行的,这种手术称为视频辅助胸腔镜 (VATS) 手术。肺部漏气的部分被切除,并在肺和胸壁之间引发炎症,这样肺就会粘在胸壁上,即使再次漏气也不会再次塌陷。

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